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Untersuchungen zur Diagnostik und Prophylaxe der alveolären Echinokokkose bei Makaken
Dr. Karen Lampe
Untersuchungen zur Diagnostik und Prophylaxe der alveolären Echinokokkose bei...
Die alveoläre Echinokokkose (AE) gilt als gefährlichste parasitäre Zoonose Mitteleuropas und wird durch das zweite Larvenstadium des kleinen Fuchsbandwurmes Echinococcus multilocularis hervorgerufen. Neben dem Menschen können auch nicht-humane Primaten an der AE erkranken, welche durch einen schleichend-progredienten Krankheitsverlauf gekennzeichnet ist und unbehandelt in der Regel letal verläuft. Anlässlich der Häufung spontaner Fälle von AE bei Makaken am Deutschen Primatenzentrum wurden im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit die mit der AE einhergehenden Veränderungen umfassend pathomorphologisch untersucht. Da die Erkrankung insbesondere in der Frühphase klinisch inapparent verläuft, wurden außerdem verschiedene prämortale diagnostische Methoden (serologische Untersuchung mittels ELISA; bildgebende Verfahren) im Hinblick auf ihre prospektive Aussagekraft evaluiert. Zusätzlich wurden erste Voruntersuchungen zu prophylaktischen Maßnahmen (Immunisierung von Rhesusaffen mit Em14-3-3; anthelminthische Beköderung von Füchsen) durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Arbeit unterstreichen die Notwendigkeit einer komplementären, auf verschiedenen Methoden beruhenden, prämortalen Diagnostik. Das pathomorphologische Bild der AE bei Makaken ähnelt dem des Menschen, allerdings überwiegen bei Makaken fertile Infektionen. Um die Problematik der AE langfristig zu lösen, erscheint neben der prophylaktischen Immunisierung der Affen das Fernhalten von Füchsen oder deren anthelminthische Beköderung die wichtigste Maßnahme.
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